TYPES OF FABRICS
Brocade is an ornate shuttle-woven fabric, often made with colourful threads silk, cotton, polyester, and sometimes with gold and silver threads. Brocade is originally a Kurdish word in Arabic is sometimes pronounced as ‘Brocar’. The word ‘Bro’ means the prophet and the word ‘Car’ means job or craft.
Of the many fabrics available in India, Banarasi Brocade is the most luxurious one of them all. Brocade work refers to heavy fabrics that are richly designed with raised patterns. However, the intricacy of the patterns is not the only thing that contributes to the opulence of the fabric; these fabrics are considered rich and heavy because of the gold or silver zari work done on them.
Kinkhwab brocade is essentially a heavy and gilt form of brocade. It is known for having extensive amounts of zari work which makes the underlying silk fabric invisible under the sheer amount of work done on the fabric. The zari work itself makes for more than fifty percent of the entire surface of the fabric. The word ‘Kinkhwab’ translates into tiny dreams or little dreams which can be interpreted to mean that Kinkhwab is ‘the fabric of dreams’.
Wispy, soft tissue like fabrics with gorgeous designs, Brasso is unique in every sense of the word. Also popularly known as ‘burnt out fabric’, brasso has been around for years and has been a great source of creative inspiration for craftsman and designers across the world. From Lehengas to saris, and salwar kurtas, brasso has been a defining niche of Indian fashion across various style spectrums.
Chiffon is a lightweight plain-woven fabric with mesh like weave that gives it transparent appearance. The word Chiffon has a French origin which means a cloth. It is primarily made from cotton, silk or synthetic fibers like nylon, rayon and polyester. Chiffon is most commonly used to weave Sarees, Dresses and Scarves.
Cotton can be described as a soft fiber which is mostly used to spin a thread which is widely used in textiles. Cotton is a widely used fabric for textile printing and almost every style of clothing can be made from cotton.
A loosely woven cotton fabric, which is very lightweight, that is used to make shirts and underwear. It is a trademarked name.
Slightly textured, Rugged looking 100% cotton fabric (So named because of its resemblance to the original bark cloth made from the bark of trees), used for unlined jackets and skirts.
Cotton fabric which is brushed on the surface to remove extra lint and fibers, making it extra soft and smooth. Flannel is a brushed cotton fabric
An extremely durable fabric made of cotton or linen. Canvas comes in two types – plain and duck.
Calico cloth is unbleached and half-processed cotton, and is less coarse than denim. It has an unfinished appearance and was originally discovered and coined by the British during their reign and influence in India. It is a simple and cheap quality of cotton; however, it is one of the oldest material forms in India. The word ‘Calico’ comes from Calicut, which was a European term for the Indian city Kozhikode.
A soft medium weight cotton fabric with a napped finish. The nap may be present on one side or both sides. It is popular in making baby clothes and blankets
Brilliantly woven fabric, kanchi cotton is the glory of the city of Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu. Known as the Textile unit of the south, Kancheepuram has given to the world genuine and high quality fabrics. These fabrics have indeed swept the world off their feet.
Khadi (or Khaddar) is a hand-spun or hand-woven fabric primarily spun out of cotton and sometimes silk and wool. India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan are the main producers of Khadi textile. Today, it is a fashion-forward industry spinning a global demand.
A finely-woven, semi-crisp fabric woven in cotton (or linen). It is very lightweight breathable and has a smooth texture. It is primarily used in heirloom dresses, blouses, collars, and cuffs. Also makes great underlining.
Linen is a fabric used widely in the fashion industry and is made of fibers that are procured from the flax plant (also known as linseed). This fabric is known for being extremely sturdy, durable as well as highly absorbent.
A medium-weight, woven fabric of cotton or cotton/polyester blends of plain weave. Used in a wide variety of sheers and sheeting. It is bleached and undyed. It is very economical and comes in a good range of weights and fineness.
Faux, a French word meaning False in regards to fabric or jewelry materials. Faux refers to all synthesized fur, leather and suede. These are very similar to the natural materials shed from animals. The Faux shade of each fabric came in existence somewhere along the late 20th century and has met a popular culture since then.
Georgette is a light-weight, crinkled and sheer fabric, displaying an overall bouncy look. A strong absorbent, Georgette is easy to dye and has dull-rough texture. Georgette is woven in highly twisted yarns of S & Z, in both warp and weft. Georgette is woven in two forms: Pure and Faux.
Jacquard is a type of fabric with an intricately woven pattern. The pattern is not embroidered but woven directly into the fabric. Available in many styles and colors, Jacquard has varying finesse as per the quality of fabric used. Jacquard is woven on a special loom, which also produces other fabrics like brocade and damask.
Jamawar (also spelled as Jamawar) is a fabric that has its roots in Kashmir. The word Jama means ‘a robe or shawl’ and War means ‘Yard (the measuring unit)’. People in the earlier times used to buy a yard of Jamawar Shawl to protect them from the chilly winter. The Jamawar is an adulterated form of Pashmina silk since it contains a blend of cotton and wool.
Kota Tissue is a type of fabric originating from Kota, in the northern region of Rajasthan. The luster and elegance of this fabric makes it a great choice for a saree or an accessory like scarf.
Lace is a patterned fabric produced with machines and/or some intricate handwork by looping, braiding or twisting a thread. Often woven from cotton, silk or rayon it has a distinct embroidered pattern. The lace fabric has an open weave with visible space in between the weaves.
The Mashru fabric is a vibrant, hand woven mix of Silk and Cotton textiles. The word ‘Mashru’ means ‘permitted’ in Arabic and its Sanskrit variation ‘Misru’ means ‘mixed’. Mashru has a characteristic fine satin finish, bright contrasting stripes in vibrant colors and striped Ikat weave. The fabric is mainly manufactured in Patan and Mandvi in Gujarat, India.
Net has been one of the most sensual fabrics available in the fashion industry. It is used widely to create Indian ethnic attires as well.Net fabric is usually used to create sections of the garment. Or is layered over a sturdier fabric in order to cover the garment in its entirety. It owes its popularity to the mystical aura that it generates when worn.
Organza is a light sheer fabric that was originally made from silk. The modernized version of the fabric however, can be created not only with silk but also polyester or nylon, or even a blend of the three. While the look and feel is similar to silk, it is a lot thinner and is made of a plain weave.
Pashmina (also known as Pashm) is a fine cashmere wool, coming from Kashmir in India and some parts of Nepal. The word ‘Pashmina’ comes from the Persian word ‘Pashmineh’ which means ‘made from Pashm’, and Pash means wool in Persian.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber. The many types and grades of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of natural fibers such as silk, wool, cotton, and linen. The types that resemble silk are often called artificial silk. Rayon is made from purified cellulose, primarily from wood pulp, which is chemically converted into a soluble compound.
Did you know that Satin was prevalent during the Middle Ages and was actually a weave derived from silk? Satin was a very expensive fabric and therefore it was bought by the wealthy. The name ‘Satin’ is derived from the place it originated,- Quanzhou (a port city in China) which was also known as ’Zayton’ by the Arabs. Over the course of time, the popularity of this lustrous fabric spread across Europe, particularly in the 12th century.
Art Satin Fabric
Art Satin, or Artificial Satin, is the name given to a specific type of Satin fabric that is made using artificial fibers such as Polyester and others. Art Satin is a sensuous fabric, whose drape flows like water. For this reason, it is often used in the making of evening wear and other elaborate outfits. It’s flattering drape and fall is a boon to all women, irrespective of shape and figure.
Silk fabric, also known as ‘Paat’ in East India, Pattu in South India and Resham in North India, is a natural fiber produced from the cocoons of mulberry silkworm via a process called Sericulture. The yarns produced from the process of sericulture are used to weave a variety of textiles. The fabric has a shimmering appearance, though has interrupting patterns of weave due to its natural fibre.
Velvet is a kind of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are distributed in an even manner in a short dense pile thus giving a very soft and smooth feel. Velvet fabric is traditionally made with silk, in which cotton is used only occasionally. Recently, there has been an advent of using synthetic fabrics for velvet. Apart from the fabric, the word `velvety’ is also used to describe something smooth, soft and with a rich touch.
Viscose is an artificial chemical based yarn known for its elasticity and soft feel. It is used in extracting economical versions of many popular fabrics like Silk and Velvet. Fabrics like Rayon (also known as Viscose Rayon), Cellophane, Art Silk and Synthetic Velvet are all made from Viscose. It is commonly used in making Sarees, Kurtis, Jackets, and Dresses.